Last week I’ve been in Stirling to work on my Shetland laser scans at Historic Environment Scotland’s shiny, new Conservation Centre: The Engine Shed! I had a play with the interactive virtual and augmented reality displays that give you a background on the specialist work that goes on here, digital documentation being one of them. The huge map of Scotland comes alive with AR – you can borrow an iPad and see models of historic sites placed in the landscape and find out more about them. Maybe my work can add to the Shetland sites!
I’ve been registering the laser scan data from Mousa for a week, which has given me a good amount of time to practice doing this with the data from the Z+F 5016 scanner (with kind help from HES colleagues!). I’m looking forward to putting all of it together and seeing the broch in a completely new way – already seeing the way the cells’ beehive-shaped ceilings and how the spiral staircase winds up the sides looks brilliant, but this data needs a bit more tidying up before I can show it! When I’m back from Orkney next week this’ll be my next step.
Last Monday we arrived late into Kirkwall, so had an overnight stop before heading across to the island of Rousay on the local ferry. The site was abuzz with media coverage from the exciting news of a Roman coin being discovered in a trench over the weekend (only the fourth ever found in Orkney). Here’s the BBC article (click).
Over two days me and Andy helped to scan the newly revealed contexts inside the trenches as well as wide-ranging contextual laser scans of the complete site at Swandro, with its Neolithic chambered tomb, Iron Age roundhouses and Pictish buildings. The stony shore made for some interesting stability challenges in finding secure places for tripod legs! Our latest scans are important as they are a record of the present condition of the site. The Knowe of Swandro is greatly under threat of coastal erosion, which is why the Swandro – Orkney Coastal Archaeology Trust are excavating and recording the site before it is completely claimed by the sea. Their great website has a daily blog as the season continues: http://www.swandro.co.uk/
It will be very interesting to examine the extent of erosion over the last few years by comparing this season’s scans to those of previous years (many thanks to Mark Littlewood for sharing his previous scans at Swandro with me).
Even though we were rained off site on Thursday, me and Andy made a determined attempt to see a lot of the archaeology of the island up close, only after we were finally torn away from the lovely local arts and crafts (and ice cream) sold at The Craft Hub. I’m now the proud owner of a locally made “Rousay” souvenir mug complete with Viking longship!
In the afternoon we drove around the island and walked along the Westness coast, stopping by Midhowe Chambered Cairn – a monumentally-sized Neolithic cairn that is now housed inside a protective structure. There is a walkway directly over the exposed interior, which is quite an experience. I recommend stout boots with good grip walking down there from the car park – it’s quite steep and slippery! Very close by is Midhowe Broch, which is very well-preserved and in a dramatic setting between two steep-sided creeks right along the coast. The buttresses are a very quirky feature of the broch. They had to be added soon after construction as the walls began to slump. Unfortunately the weather meant it wasn’t possible to take many recording shots of the site, but it is very unusual as huge stone slabs had been installed at a later date within the broch, to form partitions.
We walked past the Skaill excavations being run by the University of the Highlands and Islands and the site of ruined farm buildings, a Norse hall and burial site, before heading down the road to Blackhammer Cairn and Taversoe Tuick Cairn, both of which date to the Neolithic period. The latter is really unusual as it has two storeys!
I’ll post photos when I can take them off my camera.
Many thanks to Dr Steve Dockrill and Dr Julie Bond for their kind hospitality and arranging our stay on Rousay, and to the site staff and volunteers for all your help, advice and witty banter (especially the crew at Cedarlee – Bronwyn, Alice and Joe)! I really enjoyed being on this little island for the last week and hope to come back soon. Next time I’ll bring windproofs!
On Thursday I visited Old Scatness and Jarlshof for the first time. Compared to Mousa, the scale of these archaeological sites are staggering: many roundhouses of different periods surround the central broch at both. As my supervisor Dr Val Turner showed me and colleagues around Old Scatness, James was busy getting laser scans around the site (once you start, you can’t stop scanning)!
Val interviewed me, Lyn and Andy for Radio Scotland about my PhD project and the vision for all three of these amazing Iron Age sites. Her recording was broadcast later that day and on Friday – first claim to fame! I’ll post here and on Twitter when I find out the exact time her more in-depth interview is broadcast.
After data swapping and backing up during lunch at the Sumburgh Hotel, we headed to Jarlshof. The HES team even had time to take a few initial laser scans around the site, following the permanent survey markers that Mike recently installed so the condition of the site can be monitored with accuracy in the future. The long history of Jarlshof is amazing (much more detailed info here: https://www.historicenvironment.scot/visit-a-place/places/jarlshof-prehistoric-and-norse-settlement/), but the fact that just half of the broch has survived to present highlights just how under threat many archaeological sites are from coastal erosion. The defences put in place at Jarlshof are strong, but it will be useful to monitor them over time and laser scanning can do this with great detail.
After our Historic Environment Scotland colleagues departed on Thursday, me and Andy returned to Old Scatness on Friday to acquire some more scans and take photography for SFM photogrammetry. I laser scanned areas of Old Scatness with the FARO Focus X330 that the long range Leica P40 may not have covered, and by the end of the day much of the site has been scanned and recorded. With permission from Sumburgh Air Traffic Control and DJI, Andy piloted the DJI Mavic SUA over Old Scatness to take aerial photos across the site, giving us excellent coverage which will help to feed into the terrestrial scan data and photos for photogrammetry.
Beautiful skies over Old Scatness
Test-run for my new knitted hat!
Overall the amount of data acquired on this fieldtrip has exceeded all my expectations! It’s going to look amazing once it’s all been processed (my next major step in the PhD). Tomorrow I’ll be visiting Shetland’s Archives and Museum, run by my external partner Shetland Amenity Trust (https://www.shetlandmuseumandarchives.org.uk/) to investigate historic records of my three sites. I’m hoping to get a better sense of their history from past researchers and their notes and images.
Things stepped up a gear in the last few days. We were able to safely access the intra-mural galleries inside Mousa broch – certainly not something to do without hard hats and safety gear! Deep in the heart of the broch you are very up close and personal with the meeting storm petrels – you can hear the chicks tweet within the walls.
Team photo (top): James Hepher, Mike Jack, Marta Pilarska, Dr Lyn Wilson, Li Sou, Dr Val Turner, Dr Andy Wilson
Me and Lyn recorded the broch interior with the Z+F 5016 – a scanner with intergrated lighting and HDR imaging, which made it ideal for recording in dark areas, like the intra-mural cells built into the base of the broch, and for very clear colour data of the wall tops (bottom right). James and Marta took many exterior scans of Mousa using the Leica P40 while Andy and Mike scanned the galleries and passageways. We also used a giant tripod to scan from high inside the broch ( below left).
We were all glad we brought our “on-site vehicles” (aka garden trollies) for moving kit across Mousa. It’s less than half a kilometre away from the ferry drop off point and a very leisurely stroll for those exploring the island without survey equipment, but we had the true “Shetland pony” experience of pulling and pushing our carts along with full loads of tripods, cameras and scanners! Many thanks to the kind staff of the Mousa Boat (https://www.mousa.co.uk/) for helping us with moving kit, taking us over to the island over the last few days and for sharing the fascinating history of Mousa.
On the final day at Mousa my PhD supervisor at Shetland Amenity Trust, Dr Val Turner, visited to see us in action. It was great to discuss this exciting project together, and the next day she showed us around one of the other Iron Age sites I am researching: Old Scatness (I’ll talk about this in my next post!). In the evening we visited St Ninian’s Isle and Sumburgh Head, where we saw many puffins (we might have taken as many photos of puffins as of the broch… they seem to love being photographed!!).
It’s the end of my very busy but absolutely fantastic first day (and first ever visit) in Shetland for my PhD fieldwork. Together with Andy from University of Bradford (who took the photo above of me pulling our equipment trolley!) and Lyn, James, Marta and Mike from Historic Environment Scotland, we crossed to Mousa with much kind help from the staff of the Mousa Ferry. Instantly we were greeted by Arctic terns and a curious seal! I’m crossing my fingers that we might spot an orca, dolphin or whale over the next few days on site, but the birds that nest within the walls of Mousa broch are delightful!
Nothing prepared me for the ridiculously dramatic landscape. As Mousa broch loomed ever closer, it’s sheer size and age really struck me. It’s an architectural marvel and the 3D data we’re collecting will be fascinating to investigate. We’ve already done quite a lot of scanning, which will continue over the next few days. Maybe with time to hire a Shetland pony to carry our scanning kit over the track to the broch! Fingers crossed the lovely weather continues too.
The bags are all packed and the survey kit is charged up and ready to go! Tomorrow I’ll be setting off for Shetland with supervisor Dr Andy Wilson, catching the ferry from Aberdeen and due to arrive into Lerwick early on Monday morning. We’ll be meeting up with colleagues from Historic Environment Scotland on the ferry and begin scanning of Mousa broch together in two days’ time! After that, the plan is to visit the other two broch sites I’m surveying for my PhD: Old Scatness and Jarlshof, and to visit the Shetland Museum and Archive to explore the collections the Shetland Amenity Trust holds. Hopefully there’ll be time to see some more brochs (after all there are over 100 of them in Shetland according to Canmore)!
From then on, me and Andy will be travelling to Orkney, to visit the excavations at Swandro on Rousay to help survey. The Knowe of Swandro encompasses a Neolithic chambered tomb, Iron Age roundhouses and later Pictish buildings and is under constant threat of coastal erosion, so it’s very important the Swandro – Orkney Coastal Archaeology Trust are recording the archaeology before it is washed away. This year’s excavation season just started this week. See http://www.swandro.co.uk/ for more details – they are blogging and tweeting every day from site! I hope there’ll be time for me to see more fantastic archaeology in the Northern Isles before I travel southbound to Lindisfarne, where a new season of excavations is starting soon… but I’ll save that for another blog post!
I’m aiming to keep track of our progress through daily blog posts or tweets (follow me @LZSou for Twitter updates), though I’ll have to see how good my internet access is first… Posts might end up shorter than my usual ones, as we’ll be busy checking and processing the data in the evenings, but I’ll see how things go.
Last week I travelled to Holy Island to record an early medieval wall within the Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin (cover image). Situated next to Lindisfarne Priory, the current church is stated to be largely 12th century in date, however Medieval Archaeologist Peter Ryder believes the fabric of the present walls could feature earlier building material. The present church stands on the site of a church built by St Aidan in the 7th century, followed by a small stone church (. By laser scanning the church interior with the help of Peter and Minnie Fraser, of Northumbria University, I will generate orthophotos that will help Peter to analyse the stonework of the church in great detail, so he can investigate this further.
Many thanks to Peter and Minnie for organising the visit and helping with the survey, and for a very informative stroll around the island, discussing the history of some of its buildings and structures before the tides came back in!